Mississippi College

Leland Speed Library

Using Biological Abstracts

[This information comes from EbscoHost database.]

Welcome to the Biological Abstracts Database Information Screen! Browse the topics listed below to find what you are looking for:

Searching Tips

There are a number of helpful tips and hints you can use to improve your search results. For example, you can use Boolean operators to link search terms together; and/or limit the search to a specific title.

Note: Stopwords are commonly used words such as articles, pronouns, and prepositions. These words are not indexed for searching in the database. For example, 'the', 'for', and 'of' are stopwords. When a stopword is used in a query, any single word or no word is retrieved in place of the stopword.

Boolean Operators

Sometimes a search can be overly general (results equal too many hits) or overly specific (results equal too few hits). To fine-tune your search, you can use AND, OR, and NOT operators to link your search words together. These operators will help you narrow or broaden your search to better express the terms you are looking for and to retrieve the exact information you need quickly.

USING THE "AND" OPERATOR: If you have a search term that is too general, you can append several terms together using "AND". By stringing key terms together, you can further define your search and reduce the number of results. Note: Unless you define a specific search field, the result list will contain references where all your search terms are located in either the citation, full display or full text.

• For example, type organisms AND diseases to find results that refer to both "organisms" and "diseases".

USING THE "OR" OPERATOR: In order to broaden a search, you can link terms together by using the "OR" operator. By using "OR" to link your terms together you can find documents on many topics. Linked by this operator, your words are searched simultaneously and independently of each other.

• As an example, search organisms AND diseases OR rehabilitation to find results that reference the terms "organisms" and "diseases", or the term "rehabilitation".

USING THE "NOT" OPERATOR: In order to narrow a search, you can link words together by using the "NOT" operator. This operator will help you to filter out specific topics you do not wish included as part of your search.

  • Type: organisms OR diseases NOT rehabilitation to find results that contain the terms "organisms" or "diseases" but not the term "rehabilitation".
  • To further define your results, type: organisms AND diseases AND rehabilitation to constrict the search to include all terms linked by the "AND" operator.

Grouping Terms Together Using Parentheses

Parentheses also may be used to control a search query. Without Parentheses, a search is executed from left to right. Words that you enclose in Parentheses are searched first. Why is this important? Parentheses allow you to control and define the way the search will be executed. The left phrase in Parentheses is searched first; then based upon those results the second phrase in Parentheses is searched.

Generalized Search: organisms or diseases and rehabilitation or germs Focused Search:(organisms or diseases) and (rehabilitation or germs)

In the first example, the search will retrieve everything on organisms or diseases or rehabilitation AS WELL AS everything on germs whether or not the articles refer to organisms or diseases.

In the second example, we have used Parentheses to control our query to only find articles about rehabilitation or germs that reference diseases or organisms.

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Searchable Fields

The default fields for unqualified searches consist of the following: Title, Original Title, Author, Author Affiliation, Abstract, Chemicals, Conference Name, Organisms, Major Concepts, Super Taxa, Book Title, Book Editor, Book Publisher, Misc. Descriptors, Methods and Equipment, Alternative Indexing, Registry Number, Industry Name, Conference Sponsor, Abstract Available, Taxa Notes, Diseases, Parts& Structures, Geopolitical Descriptors, Time, Source, Sequence Data, Institutions & Organizations, Persons, Conference Location, Conference Date.

The following list will help you locate detailed information referenced in this database as a field.

 

Searchable Tag Description Example
AB Abstract
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the abstract field
AB clinical trials
AF Author affiliation 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the author affiliation field
AF Harvard
AN Accession Number 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact Accession number
AN BACD200000000613
AU Author 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the author field. Author's last name followed by first name or initial, and a middle name or initial
AU Jones, T. or AU Jones, Thomas
BE Book Editor 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the book editor field
BE Braeuning, A.
BP Book Publisher 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the book publisher field
BP New York
BT Book Title 
[Word indexed]
Searches for words in the book title field
BT Biology
CH Chemicals 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the chemicals field
CH calcium
CO Conference or meeting name 
[Word indexed]
Searches for words in the following fields: Conference, Conference Sponsor
CO Proceedings
DE or MC Major Concepts 
[Word Indexed]
Searches words in the major concept headings
DE animal care or MC animal care
DS Diseases 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the diseases field
DS malaria
DT Date published 
[Numerically Indexed]
Searches for the date in the YYMMDD format
DT 990901
GE Geopolitical locations 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Geopolitical locations field
GE France
IL Illustrations 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact Illustrations
IL
IB ISBN 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact ISBN number
IB
IN Industry Name 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Industry Name field
IN Biological
IS International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact ISSN number
IS 00284793
JI Journal Issue 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact journal issue number; displays in the Source field
JI 15
JN Journal 
[Phrase indexed]
Searches for the exact journal title
JN Nature Genetics
JV Volume 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact journal volume number; displays in the Source field
JV 5
LA Language 
[Phrase indexed]
Searches for the exact language
LA French
LO Local Bitmap 
[Bitmaps]
Searches for bitmaps
LO
MD Miscellaneous Descriptors 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Miscellaneous Descriptors field
MD Plant
MH Alternative Indexing 
[Word indexed]
Searches for words in the Alternative indexing field
MH Dental Caries
MQ Methods and Equipment 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the methods and equipment field
MQ Microscope
MT Media Type 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact media type
MT
NC Institutions & Organizations 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Institutions and Organizations field
NC France
NP Person(s) Named 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the person(s) named field
NP Smith
OG Organisms 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the organisms field
OG medical
OT Original Title 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the original title field
OT Botanicae
PG Start Page 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact start page
PG 169
PT Publication Type 
[Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact publication type, values consist of the following:
  • Article
  • Article: Erratum
  • Annual Report
  • Atlas
  • Bibliography
  • Biography
  • Book
  • Buyers Guide
  • Company Profile
  • Dictionary
  • Directory
  • Editorial
  • Expert Opinion
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Interview
  • Letter
  • Literature Review
  • Meeting
  • Manual
  • New Product Announcement
  • News
  • Obituary
  • Product Review
  • Software Review
  • Standard
  • Technical Report
PT company profile
PY Publication year 
[Numerically Indexed]
Searched for the publication year in YYYY format
PY 1999
RN Registry Number 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the registry number field
RN 361-37-5:methysergide
RT Record Type 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the record type field
RT Abstract
SA Super Taxa Authority 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Super Taxa authority field
SA
SD Sequence Data 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the sequence data field
SD Amino
SP Conference Sponsor 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Conference Sponsors field
SP Research Institute for development
SO Source 
[Word indexed]
Searches for words in the source field
SO National
ST Super Taxa 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Super Taxa field
ST viruses
SU Subjects 
[Word Indexed]
Searches words in the following fields: Major Concepts, Time, Super Taxa, Taxa Notes, Diseases, Parts and Structures, Geopolitical Descriptors, Registry Number, Chemicals, Organisms, Misc. Descriptors, Methods and Equipment, Alternative Indexing, Sequence Data, Persons.
SU algae
SY Parts & Structures 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Parts & Structures field
SY skeletal system
TI Title 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the following field: Title, Original Title, Book Title
TI flower
TM Time 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the time field
TM age
TN Taxa Notes 
[Word Indexed]
Searches for words in the Taxa Notes field
TN bacteria
UC Update Code 
[Numerically Indexed]
Searches the Updated Code field
UC 19991214

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Definition of Fields

The following table explains the contents of each field in GeoRef record's detailed display (not all fields are listed in every record).

 

Field name Description
Title The title of the Document.
Original Title The Original un-translated title of the article.
Author(s) Author(s) last name followed by a first initial, or name, and a middle initial if available.
Author Affiliation Institutional affiliation of the first-listed author and its geographical location.
Conference Name The title of a scientific meeting or conference, including the location and date.
Source The source in which the article was published and other publication information including date of publication, volume/issue, and page range of the article.
Book Title Title of a book, may also include book editor, publisher, and address.
Original Book Title The original title of a book, may also include book editor, publisher, and address.
Item URL The Item URL field contains the URL electronic address for the item referenced in the source document.
Journal URL The journal URL field contains the URL electronic address for the journal.
Publication Year The date of publication in YYYY format.
Abstract An English-language synopsis or author abstract of the source document.
Registry Numbers Registry Numbers of the article.
Major Concepts The broad subject areas in the life sciences covered in the source document; assigned to each citation by BIOSIS staff indexers.
Super Taxa High-level taxonomic terms which refer to broad categories of organisms, including microorganisms.
Taxa Notes Common names of broad groups of organisms and microorganisms mentioned in the source document.
Organisms The formal scientific name, or informal common name, for organisms, the higher taxonomic categories, or the names of cell lines mentioned in the source document.
Diseases The names of human, animal, and plant diseases, disorders, and pathological conditions as described in the source document.
Chemicals The names of naturally occurring or synthetic chemicals and chemical components that are described in the source document.
Parts & Structures The components of organisms above the macromolecular level as discussed in the source document.
Geopolitical Locations Locations and place names mentioned in the original source document.
Alternative Indexing The ALT field contains other types of indexing, such as MeSH terms.
Miscellaneous Terms The Miscellaneous Terms field contains additional words and phrases, added by BIOSIS editors, that do not fit into any of the other fielded categories. Literalizations are substituted for special characters and symbols, such as Greek letters.
Methods & Equipment The Methods & Equipment field contains information on the methods, apparatus, and scientific techniques mentioned in the source document.
Sequence Data The Sequence Data field contains databank accession numbers, which are modified by appropriate databanks and sequence types.
Person(s) Named The Person(s) Named field contains persons discussed in the source document.
Industry Name The name of the industry.
Institution & Organization This field contains the name of a company, organization, or institution mentioned in the original source document.
Time The geological time period or era mentioned in the original source document.
Language The language(s) in which the source document was published.
Summary Language The Summary Language field contains the language in which the source document abstracts were published, followed by a two-character language abbreviation in parentheses. The term "Non-English" is also included in this field for documents published in any language other than English.
ISSN The ISSN assigned to the serial title.
ISBN The ISBN assigned to the article.
Publication Type Identifies the general type of the document such as Article, Bibliography, Book, etc.
Media Type The media type of the article.
Record Type The type of record.
Author URL The author URL contains the electronic address for an author or inventor.
Conference URL The conference URL contains the electronic address of the conference.
Update Code The Update code of the article.
Accession Number A unique number used to identify each document.
Note Notes of the article.

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