Using Biological Abstracts
Welcome to the Biological Abstracts Database Information Screen! Browse the topics listed below to find what you are looking for:
There are a number of helpful tips and hints you can use to improve your search results. For example, you can use Boolean operators to link search terms together; and/or limit the search to a specific title.
Note: Stopwords are commonly used words such as articles, pronouns, and prepositions. These words are not indexed for searching in the database. For example, 'the', 'for', and 'of' are stopwords. When a stopword is used in a query, any single word or no word is retrieved in place of the stopword.
Sometimes a search can be overly general (results equal too many hits) or overly specific (results equal too few hits). To fine-tune your search, you can use AND, OR, and NOT operators to link your search words together. These operators will help you narrow or broaden your search to better express the terms you are looking for and to retrieve the exact information you need quickly.
USING THE "AND" OPERATOR: If you have a search term that is too general, you can append several terms together using "AND". By stringing key terms together, you can further define your search and reduce the number of results. Note: Unless you define a specific search field, the result list will contain references where all your search terms are located in either the citation, full display or full text.
• For example, type organisms AND diseases to find results that refer to both "organisms" and "diseases".
USING THE "OR" OPERATOR: In order to broaden a search, you can link terms together by using the "OR" operator. By using "OR" to link your terms together you can find documents on many topics. Linked by this operator, your words are searched simultaneously and independently of each other.
• As an example, search organisms AND diseases OR rehabilitation to find results that reference the terms "organisms" and "diseases", or the term "rehabilitation".
USING THE "NOT" OPERATOR: In order to narrow a search, you can link words together by using the "NOT" operator. This operator will help you to filter out specific topics you do not wish included as part of your search.
- Type: organisms OR diseases NOT rehabilitation to find results that contain the terms "organisms" or "diseases" but not the term "rehabilitation".
- To further define your results, type: organisms AND diseases AND rehabilitation to constrict the search to include all terms linked by the "AND" operator.
Parentheses also may be used to control a search query. Without Parentheses, a search is executed from left to right. Words that you enclose in Parentheses are searched first. Why is this important? Parentheses allow you to control and define the way the search will be executed. The left phrase in Parentheses is searched first; then based upon those results the second phrase in Parentheses is searched.
Generalized Search: organisms or diseases and rehabilitation or germs Focused Search:(organisms or diseases) and (rehabilitation or germs)
In the first example, the search will retrieve everything on organisms or diseases or rehabilitation AS WELL AS everything on germs whether or not the articles refer to organisms or diseases.
In the second example, we have used Parentheses to control our query to only find articles about rehabilitation or germs that reference diseases or organisms.
The default fields for unqualified searches consist of the following: Title, Original Title, Author, Author Affiliation, Abstract, Chemicals, Conference Name, Organisms, Major Concepts, Super Taxa, Book Title, Book Editor, Book Publisher, Misc. Descriptors, Methods and Equipment, Alternative Indexing, Registry Number, Industry Name, Conference Sponsor, Abstract Available, Taxa Notes, Diseases, Parts& Structures, Geopolitical Descriptors, Time, Source, Sequence Data, Institutions & Organizations, Persons, Conference Location, Conference Date.
The following list will help you locate detailed information referenced in this database as a field.
Searches for words in the abstract field
|AB clinical trials|
Searches for words in the author affiliation field
Searches for the exact Accession number
Searches for words in the author field. Author's last name followed by first name or initial, and a middle name or initial
|AU Jones, T. or AU Jones, Thomas|
Searches for words in the book editor field
|BE Braeuning, A.|
Searches for words in the book publisher field
|BP New York|
Searches for words in the book title field
Searches for words in the chemicals field
|CO||Conference or meeting name
Searches for words in the following fields: Conference, Conference Sponsor
|DE or MC||Major Concepts
Searches words in the major concept headings
|DE animal care or MC animal care|
Searches for words in the diseases field
Searches for the date in the YYMMDD format
Searches for words in the Geopolitical locations field
Searches for the exact Illustrations
Searches for the exact ISBN number
Searches for words in the Industry Name field
|IS||International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Searches for the exact ISSN number
Searches for the exact journal issue number; displays in the Source field
Searches for the exact journal title
|JN Nature Genetics|
Searches for the exact journal volume number; displays in the Source field
Searches for the exact language
Searches for bitmaps
Searches for words in the Miscellaneous Descriptors field
Searches for words in the Alternative indexing field
|MH Dental Caries|
|MQ||Methods and Equipment
Searches for words in the methods and equipment field
Searches for the exact media type
|NC||Institutions & Organizations
Searches for words in the Institutions and Organizations field
Searches for words in the person(s) named field
Searches for words in the organisms field
Searches for words in the original title field
Searches for the exact start page
Searches for the exact publication type, values consist of the following:
|PT company profile|
Searched for the publication year in YYYY format
Searches for words in the registry number field
Searches for words in the record type field
|SA||Super Taxa Authority
Searches for words in the Super Taxa authority field
Searches for words in the sequence data field
Searches for words in the Conference Sponsors field
|SP Research Institute for development|
Searches for words in the source field
Searches for words in the Super Taxa field
Searches words in the following fields: Major Concepts, Time, Super Taxa, Taxa Notes, Diseases, Parts and Structures, Geopolitical Descriptors, Registry Number, Chemicals, Organisms, Misc. Descriptors, Methods and Equipment, Alternative Indexing, Sequence Data, Persons.
|SY||Parts & Structures
Searches for words in the Parts & Structures field
|SY skeletal system|
Searches for words in the following field: Title, Original Title, Book Title
Searches for words in the time field
Searches for words in the Taxa Notes field
Searches the Updated Code field
The following table explains the contents of each field in GeoRef record's detailed display (not all fields are listed in every record).
|Title||The title of the Document.|
|Original Title||The Original un-translated title of the article.|
|Author(s)||Author(s) last name followed by a first initial, or name, and a middle initial if available.|
|Author Affiliation||Institutional affiliation of the first-listed author and its geographical location.|
|Conference Name||The title of a scientific meeting or conference, including the location and date.|
|Source||The source in which the article was published and other publication information including date of publication, volume/issue, and page range of the article.|
|Book Title||Title of a book, may also include book editor, publisher, and address.|
|Original Book Title||The original title of a book, may also include book editor, publisher, and address.|
|Item URL||The Item URL field contains the URL electronic address for the item referenced in the source document.|
|Journal URL||The journal URL field contains the URL electronic address for the journal.|
|Publication Year||The date of publication in YYYY format.|
|Abstract||An English-language synopsis or author abstract of the source document.|
|Registry Numbers||Registry Numbers of the article.|
|Major Concepts||The broad subject areas in the life sciences covered in the source document; assigned to each citation by BIOSIS staff indexers.|
|Super Taxa||High-level taxonomic terms which refer to broad categories of organisms, including microorganisms.|
|Taxa Notes||Common names of broad groups of organisms and microorganisms mentioned in the source document.|
|Organisms||The formal scientific name, or informal common name, for organisms, the higher taxonomic categories, or the names of cell lines mentioned in the source document.|
|Diseases||The names of human, animal, and plant diseases, disorders, and pathological conditions as described in the source document.|
|Chemicals||The names of naturally occurring or synthetic chemicals and chemical components that are described in the source document.|
|Parts & Structures||The components of organisms above the macromolecular level as discussed in the source document.|
|Geopolitical Locations||Locations and place names mentioned in the original source document.|
|Alternative Indexing||The ALT field contains other types of indexing, such as MeSH terms.|
|Miscellaneous Terms||The Miscellaneous Terms field contains additional words and phrases, added by BIOSIS editors, that do not fit into any of the other fielded categories. Literalizations are substituted for special characters and symbols, such as Greek letters.|
|Methods & Equipment||The Methods & Equipment field contains information on the methods, apparatus, and scientific techniques mentioned in the source document.|
|Sequence Data||The Sequence Data field contains databank accession numbers, which are modified by appropriate databanks and sequence types.|
|Person(s) Named||The Person(s) Named field contains persons discussed in the source document.|
|Industry Name||The name of the industry.|
|Institution & Organization||This field contains the name of a company, organization, or institution mentioned in the original source document.|
|Time||The geological time period or era mentioned in the original source document.|
|Language||The language(s) in which the source document was published.|
|Summary Language||The Summary Language field contains the language in which the source document abstracts were published, followed by a two-character language abbreviation in parentheses. The term "Non-English" is also included in this field for documents published in any language other than English.|
|ISSN||The ISSN assigned to the serial title.|
|ISBN||The ISBN assigned to the article.|
|Publication Type||Identifies the general type of the document such as Article, Bibliography, Book, etc.|
|Media Type||The media type of the article.|
|Record Type||The type of record.|
|Author URL||The author URL contains the electronic address for an author or inventor.|
|Conference URL||The conference URL contains the electronic address of the conference.|
|Update Code||The Update code of the article.|
|Accession Number||A unique number used to identify each document.|
|Note||Notes of the article.|